The following is a paper by H. Aspden published in Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, v. 41, pp. 252-256 (1984).

Abstract: The author's structured space model by which the fine structure
constant and the proton/electron mass ratio have been determined is now shown to
contain a very rarified disordered matter state, whose free-electron population
of approximately 10^{-27} kg per cubic metre presents a scattering
cross-section limiting the visible universe to the measured range of
10^{10} light years.

Commentary: This is a very important paper. The author, in advocating his aether theory, had been confronted with Einstein's theory and the QED theory with the Dirac-spin interpretation of electron g-factor, but another general objection was the belief in the 'Big Bang' and the 'expanding universe'. This paper now attacked the 'Big Bang' interpretation simply by showing how one can derive the Hubble constant from aether theory.

There is far more that is involved in this paper. It concerns the dispersionless properties of the aether and its dual displacement nature [see 1982a] and it introduces the theme that Nature is always trying to create protons, throughout the universe. It is the proton creation activity which accounts for the mass 'noise' we associate with 'missing matter'.

Special Note: Shortly after the above paper was published it came to the author's attention that there was need to correct an error in the paper. This affected the theoretical evaluation of the expression we associate with the Hubble constant and the following note was sent to recipients of further off-prints of the paper:-

The Thomson scattering cross-section of the electron has been incorrectly quoted in the analysis in the paper. The following itemized data show theoretical values for the Hubble constant H for effective fully-absorbing cross-sections in the ultra-rarified electron gas. Note that the Thomson scattering cross-section is 6 times the cross-sectional area of the charge having the Thomson electron radius. It is 2.667 times that of a charge having the classical electron radius. It is twice the cross-sectional area of the scattering radius derived from the author's g-factor analysis in reference 1982b (referred to below as the Aspden electron). According to the electron's effect, which depends upon the assumed form of the electron, one finds, therefore, that the following values for the Hubble time constant apply: (a) Thomson electron: 1/H is 21,600 million years, (b) classical electron: 1/H is 9,000 million years, (c) Aspden electron: 1/H is 7,200 million years and (d) Thomson scattering: 1/H is 3,600 million years.