LECTURE NO. 26
The Contemporary Aether
Copyright © Harold Aspden, 1996
This is the text of a paper written as a contribution to a
conference held at the University of Perugia in Italy in 1996 to pay tribute
to the memory of Rene Descartes.
It was later (1999) published at pp.291-307 of 'La Scienza e i
Vortici del Dubbio', Pubblicazione dell'Universita degli Studi di Perugia
IntroductionAlthough 20th century scientific philosophy
has sought to banish the aether and outlaw it from our modern civilisation, that
effort has failed. The great contributions of philosophers of earlier centuries,
giving us recognition of the aether, and notably by Rene Descartes, live on,
nothwithstanding acceptance of the four-space notions of the theory of
relativity. The aether remains the essential fabric of space, the canvas on
which Nature has painted the glorious picture of the world and the universe we
see around us. This paper will simply point to one scientific phenomenon which
reveals a direct manifestation of the aether and shows us how to tap into its
power. This paper also provides a bibliographic listing of this author's 20th
century discoveries concerning the aether, this being research which has been
published in spite of the opposition by those who prefer to accept the virtual
reality images which stem from Einstein's doctrines. The key property of the
real aether is its universal rhythm, its universal time keeping, as enforced by
a phase-lock between its quantum properties. This property is manifested by
aether in rotation because the phase-lock involves one-way energy transfer from
aether to matter in company with an electric charge induction by rotation,
neither of which feature in Einstein's vision of the properties of
Descartes was the first to bring the aether into science, by
postulating that it had mechanical properties. Descartes assumed that the aether
comprises particles that are continually in motion, but as there is no empty
space, he inferred that those particles are continually moving into places
vacated by other aether particles which are themselves in motion. Overall, the
motion was that of vortices as the particles were all part of a great machine,
but one which we can now examine at a microscopic quantum level and see as a
kind of universal clock mechanism.
Sadly, however, towards the end of the
19th century, the mechanistic aether seems to have lost favour, because the
aether came to be viewed, not as a clock which kept everything in the universe
together in a rhythmic dance, but rather only as the 'sea' rippled by light
waves. The luminiferous aether concept became the dominant consideration. The
aether was not deemed to be the bonding agency which wedded all matter in the
universe together in an energy machine. Electromagnetic waves and their finite
speed were seen as the signature that proved the aether existed and, once that
signature became blurred, there were those who broke away from the aether
It was in the early part of the 20th century that a French
astronomer, Alexandre Veronnet, made a bid to arouse interest in an 'etheron'
particle picture of the aether, bringing the Bohr magneton into that 'clock
mechanism', but wave mechanics had a different style of presentation and the
aether began to sink into its own sea of oblivion.
Einstein was the
champion who led the aether dissenters. As philosopher Bertrand Russell
" Empty space, to Descartes, is as absurd as happiness without a
sentient being who is happy. Leibnitz, on somewhat different grounds, also
believed in the plenum, but he maintained that space is merely a system of
relations. On this subject there was a famous controversy between him and
Newton. The controversy remained undecided until the time of Einstein, whose
theory gave the victory to Leibnitz."
History of Western Philosophy,
Published by Allen & Unwin, page
Well, I now submit here that the controversy is far from
over. Space is not merely a system of 'relations'. It is a real mechanism,
albeit one that is, as is all matter, rooted in the electrical form of the
constituent aether particles.
The way forward from the Einstein diversion
requires that we heed what another British philosopher had to say about
"The effects of rotation are among the most widespread phenomena
of the apparent world, exemplified in the most gigantic nebulae and in the
minutest molecules. The most obvious fact about rotational effects is their
apparent disconnection from outlying phenomena. Rotation is the stronghold of
those who believe that in some sense there is an absolute space to provide a
framework of dynamical axes. Newton cited it in support of this doctrine. The
Einstein theory in explaining gravitation has made rotation an entire
The above was quoted from p. 356 of 'The Principle of
Relativity' in the book 'Alfred North Whitehead: An Anthology', published by
Cambridge University Press, 1953. (A further quote at the end of this text is
from p. 357).
So, I introduce the subject of this paper by asserting that
we must look to 'rotation' to see how we can revive belief in the aether, and I
note that vortices and rotation are complementary aspects of the universal
mechanism that is tuned to the spirit of Descartes.
Vacuum SpinCan the aether spin? If those 'vortices' or those
aether particles describing minute circular orbital motion, as part of that
universal clock we call the aether, can store energy, as by expanding their
orbits so as to move faster, then we have territory to explore. If, further,
those aether particles can, by analogy with matter, group together to form
structure, but by keeping their mutual spacing, then we have the makings of a
geometry which determines a dimensionless physical constant connected with both
energy quanta and that aether. That gives us a larger aether form that we can
explore in terms of spin, a form which might set up pulsating ripples as
surrounding aether is disturbed by that structure in rotation. This suggests a
route to the photon, linked to the theoretical derivation of the fine-structure
constant, the latter comprising Planck's constant, the fundamental unitary
electric charge and the speed of light.
On a larger scale, maybe large
spherically-formed expanses of aether can be set in rotation, as with body Earth
or the Sun, all leading to interesting properties revealing the role of the
On an intermediate scale, there are other possible spin forms of
aether. Remember that we can move through the aether, as if it does not exist,
and so aether in spin can move through a solid wall to transport its action from
one side of that wall to the other. Yes, there is evidence of that to be seen in
the thunderball phenomenon, which becomes a candidate for research enquiry into
the aether. There are other mysteries connected with atmospheric electrical
phenomena and invariably there is something spinning, as in the funnel of a
tornado. Indeed, observers have seen the tornado travel one way when the
prevailing wind direction was in the opposite direction! Rotation, therefore,
offers the logical entry point for a fascinating study of the
Now, my main aim here is to interest the reader in my theory as a
whole, but that can only be by individual study of my many published papers and
other writings on the subject. The appended bibliographic listing is, therefore,
the primary contribution I make in presenting this paper.
In 1977 I was
invited to explain my aether theory to the students and staff of the Physics
Department at Cardiff University in Wales . My argument was that the aether
contains electric charge, as needed to sustain displacement according to
Maxwell's theory. Charge has the dimensions of mass M, length L, and time T,
taken together with the electrical dimension of the dielectric constant k. The
question at issue was that of understanding how, if the aether could develop
spherical pockets that could rotate inside enveloping aether, its angular
rotation or spin would relate to electric charge. If I assumed that a uniform
charge density would be induced in proportion to the angular velocity of vacuum
spin I found that the aether would need to exhibit a uniform mass density to
keep the dimensions to balance. In fact, I developed the relationship between
vacuum spin, the radial electric field and the angular momentum of aether spin,
together with their energy connection.
|charge density σ
|angular velocity ω
|mass density ρ
I was aiming at the objective of showing that
the energy added owing to that rotation would be both the electric field energy
stored by charge displacement and an equal amount of kinetic energy.
easiest way in which to explain this 'vacuum spin' induction is to imagine that
all space exhibits a quantum activity as if everywhere there is electric charge
keeping in universal phase in minute orbital loop motion at the same frequency.
Here we need to picture large spheres of aether as capable of spin at an angular
frequency ω and see every charge in that aether as a quantum unit having a
microcosmic orbital spin motion at a very high frequency compared with ω. This
latter frequency is the Compton electron frequency (Ω/2π) and it corresponds to
the photon energy needed to create an electron. Quantum mechanics involves
linear harmonic oscillations and that tells us that the controlling medium has a
linear restoring force rate when displaced. An electric charge e in the aether,
as needed in Maxwell's displacement theory, complies with a force rate of
4πNe2, where there are N charges e in unit volume of space, all
neutralized overall by a universally-constant density of background charge of
opposite polarity. Here I use the c.g.s system of units, in which an electric
field of strength E stores energy density E2/8π in vacuum of unit
dielectric constant, owing to Ee being equal to 4πNe2.
restoring force rate determines the jitter frequency of the vacuum state by the
8πN2e2 = ρ(Ω)2 ...... (1)where
ρ is the effective mass density of the aether, which is proportional to N. In
the equation 8π has replaced 4π because, to assure dynamic balance, the orbital
radius of the motion is half of the displacement, which spans the orbit
Now consider the superimposed effect in a sphere of aether
which spins at the angular frequency ω. If the spin is in the same sense
(parallel axes of spin) as the quantized orbital motion, then to keep the
phase-lock as between enveloping aether and aether in spin, the equation (1)
8π(N-δN)e2 = (ρ/N)(Ω - ω)2 .......
(2)where ρ/N is constant.
From (1) and (2) we can deduce the
δN/N = 2ω/Ω ............. (3)This means that δN charges e per
unit volume of that aether sphere are displaced from it owing to spin
Conversely, if we can feed electrostatic energy into that sphere to
displace that amount of charge, the phase-lock asserted by the external aether
will promote the spin at ω. Or, if we can get the aether sphere to spin by other
means, the phase-lock asserted by the external aether will promote charge
induction. Once the external aether has to assert itself to hold that phase-lock
as between different regions of aether, it does work and that is our 'free
Suppose we can contain some positive ions into a small
sphere. The aether will see this as producing a radial electric field from the
centre of that sphere and it will develop a charge displacement to neutralize
that core charge and effectively transfer the charge effect to the surface of
the sphere. Now, this means that N has been changed in that sphere and so the
natural frequency of quantum jitter will change. The aether charges lying
outside that sphere will, however, not allow this loss of synchronism and very
powerful electrostatic forces are asserted to ensure that the synchronism holds.
The vast amount of energy sustaining the quantum jitter at the Compton electron
frequency in the aether of enveloping space will be pooled with that of the
rotating aether sphere to keep that state of synchronism. The relative frequency
is what is held constant. Thus, if N increases in the sphere to cause the local
value of Ω to increase, then the offset of ω, will assure that synchronous
condition. In other words, rotation at ω follows as a consequence of the
This imports energy from the aether.
to the linear harmonic motion properties of the quantum world, there is
equipartition of energy in the sense that for every unit of electric field
energy stored there is an equal unit of kinetic energy stored. Therefore, by
adding one joule of energy in one pulsation of the 'vacuum spin' state we
receive 'gratis' one further unit of energy drawing on the universal energy
priming of the aether activity at that jitter angular frequency Ω.
therefore become an interesting task, technologically, to reiterate this action
at a rapid pulse rate, given that we can, in fact, set up that priming radial
electric field or the spin in an effective way. This is what now takes this
aether subject from the realm of oblivion and, without stopping in the arena of
philosophical debate, progressing directly into the field of technology, where
the aether can be seen to serve us as an energy source.
As long ago as
1960 I published my first account of this 'vacuum spin' induction theory 
and evaluated the spin charge density in relation to spin angular frequency ω.
The formula gave the charge density as 4.781 esu/cc per rad/s of spin (page 32
of that reference). In terms of coulombs, one micro-coulomb per cc would
correspond to aether spin at 6,000 rpm. I note that one micro-coulomb per cc.
squeezed into a sphere of 7 cm. diameter corresponds to an energy density of the
order of 109 J/m3.
I now note that the experimental data of
record in recently granted U.S. patents [116, 117] concern a method of holding
500 J in an abnormal glow discharge which is trapped between electrodes, close
to the cathode, and probably confined to a volume of a fraction of 1 cc, which
also corresponds to 109 J/m3 of energy density.
In my 1977
lecture paper  I explained how the Sun was created by gravitational
attraction between protons setting up a positive core charge which produced a
radial electric field. That charge had the density of (G)1/2 times
the 1.4 gm per cc mass density of the Sun. Put G as 6.67x10-8 in
c.g.s units and one obtains 3.6x10-4 esu/cc, which develops a vacuum
spin of 7.5x10-5 rad/s or one revolution every 23 hours. If the whole
angular momentum of the solar system as it is today were to be put back into the
Sun, then, as that paper  shows, the Sun would spin at 8.3x10-5
rad/s or one revolution every 21 hours. My 1980 book 'Physics Unified'  put
on record a more formal account.
This is close enough to explain how the
solar system got its angular momentum from the phase-locked aether and support
the proposition that energy can be shed by this 'vacuum spin' activity of the
aether and transferred to matter. Our experiments can tap the aether energy in
the same way, simply by setting up a radial electric field inside a conductive
medium that can sustain the build up of the charge displacement.
I presented the theory of 'vacuum spin' at a conference held by the U.K.
Institute of Physics at Oxford University. See pages 179-184 of reference .
I explained how the known facts about the energy density of thunderballs pointed
to an aether in which there could be energy storage by spin.
to Altschuler et al. of the High Altitude Lab. in Boulder, Colorado (1970) and
their suggestion in Nature  that thunderballs might be nuclear powered
because they all had an energy density in the range 2 to 5x109
J/m3. This is the same energy density as mentioned above!
1983 paper went further because I knew that if the Earth shared its spin with
the aether then that would involve two systems each neutralizing one another in
electric charge terms but in a way which would still produce a magnetic field.
The Earth's magnetic field is seated in the charge displaced in, and rotating
with, the Earth, but the vacuum charge involved in that aether spin cannot
develop a magnetic field because it is the reference against which magnetic
action is measured.
From knowledge of the strength of the Earth's
magnetism I could calculate the Earth's vacuum spin charge and it was found to
have a value which would constrain vacuum spin, whether in thunderballs,
tornadoes or in our motor experiments, to have an energy density estimated as
being 2.37x109 J/m3. See page 183 of reference
Proof that there is an AetherIf we can get energy from vacuous
space, energy in excess of that we can store by setting up electric or magnetic
fields, then that proves there is something in space that stands apart from
matter. That 'something' is the aether.
Now, I know of several ways in
which this 'free energy' scenario can be demonstrated. Indeed, it is the subject
of my primary research interest at this time. However, I will take up the theme
that follows from my 1983 paper . It refers in its penultimate paragraph to
Nobel Laureate Kapitza's efforts to produce thunderballs for application in
triggering fusion reactions . Then, in the last sentence, I declared in my
" It remains to devise and conduct experiments aimed at inducing
this (vacuum) spin condition by using radial electric fields, so as to verify
and perhaps apply the phenomenon to useful ends."
That was my
outlook in 1983. I can now quote the research achievement of Dr. Kiril Chukanov.
He reports :
" I first produced experimental proof that artificially created
ball lightning could produce energy for practical needs in 1987 in
After describing his experimental set-up, which
involved an ionized gas discharge in a quartz tube, he wrote:
" I experienced great difficulty in evaluating the amount of power
produced by the quantum plasma macro-object, but my rough estimation was three
to four times more power output than that being supplied by the (input of the
high frequency signal-generating) lamp."
By 1990 he had taken
his research project into Sunnivale, California and his onward reporting on his
production of excess energy showed that he had measured heat generated in a
water jacket enclosing the evacuated glow discharge chamber used in his tests.
In his 1994 book 'Final Quantum Revelation' he reports a 900 watt rate of excess
energy generation using electrodes of some 3 cm separation. The vacuum, or
rather, aether spin in a filamentary discharge region having a volume of, say, 3
cc, drawing in 'excess' energy at the rate of 109 J/m3, would need to
take about 3 seconds to regenerate each action cycle to give the 900 watt excess
Chukanov mentions a 3 second duration of the burst discharge
before the discharge, in writhing like a snake, spread to the sides and touched
the walls of the containing tube and caused overheating.
Chernetskii and his team of researchers in Russia have also produced excess
energy at power levels in a self-sustaining plasma discharge device, claiming 4
to 5 times electrical power output compared with power input. This was reported
in 1989 in a Novosti Press Agency Press Release .
Lambertson at a conference in 1994 in Denver, Colorado reported similar levels
of power gain from a solid-state discharge device formed as a
specially-fabricated thyristor .
Recently reported Canadian research
in 1995 by Dr. Paulo Correa and Alexandra Correa [116 & 117] has established
a sustained excess power generation of 500 J per pulse in a cold-cathode
discharge confined to an abnormal glow region, with a prospective 40
megawatt-hour electrode lifetime. The Correa technology delivers electrical d.c.
output steadily at several hundred volts and a power gain that is also of the
order of 5:1 over d.c. input at similar voltage level.
technology will undoubtedly lead us forward on the quest to exploit energy
sourced in the aether, especially as it is already well-patented in the
Several other reports of excess energy production are now of record
in the scientific and patent literature and one needs, therefore, to be prepared
for the aether to reappear into our scientific philosophy, as being the only
source that can supply that excess energy.
When the consequences of these
developments and onward research on this new energy theme become generally known
and accepted, the aether will reclaim its rightful place in physical science and
then acquire a stature which will dwarf its early role in history. Meanwhile, we
need to be a little patient and watch events as the interest grows and
conferences on the subject as well as new journals devoted to these matters
escalate in numbers.
Methodology in Science?In conclusion, it is submitted that
science has lost its methodology. Technology has needed science to point the way
forward towards new sources of energy that are non-polluting, but science has
faltered. Sensible methodoloy would have been tolerant of retention of the
aether as the foundation on which to build the material world. Even though it is
academically interesting to see how far we can go without using a word meaning
the 'aether', it was not at all wise for science to reject the concept totally
and without reservation. Now, in the present circumstances, too many of the
scientists who build their hopes on physical theory are committed to the denial
that there is a universal timing mechanism governing everything. They deny the
possibility that energy can be delivered to us by an aether, which, if seen at
all, is deemed wholly passive in its role. As a result, instead of leading our
thought processes and guiding us forward into a new technological era, building
on knowledge of the aether, the scientific philosophers of today have crippled
the mental agility of younger generations and made progress so much more
For my part, in writing this paper, my main objective is to
draw attention to the bibliographical record of papers I have written in
connection with aether theory. I say there is an aether and I use it throughout
my research to explain much in physics that has otherwise remained
I have been obstructed in my efforts by the prejudice of
orthodox belief and have had many more papers rejected than have been accepted,
especially in my earlier years of endeavour, from 1955 to 1975.
acknowledge my gratitude to the Italian Institute of Physics for their more
tolerant review of several of my papers that were published thereafter in
Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, that is, until the demise of that periodical. I think
it was a great pity that the Italian Institute of Physics ceased publication of
their Letter periodical at the end of 1985. Indeed, I almost wonder whether
there was any special significance in the fact that two of my papers, referenced
[46 & 47] in the appended list, featured together at the end in that last
The future ahead now rests, not with reason and philosophy, but
with the forces of new technology, because pursuit of reason and logic is
claimed as the exclusive province of those who insist on inventing descriptive
language alien to Nature's own method of revelation. In physical science we now
destined to witness a slow reformation as technology leads the field and those
amongst us who are wise enough to seek recovery of lost ground will hopefully do
so by paying more respect to those who have pioneered a belief in the aether. We
need to pay homage to the memory of Rene Descartes and, again quoting the words
of philosopher Alfred North Whitehead, words he used by reference to Albert
The worst homage we can pay to genius is to accept uncritically
formulations of truths which we owe to it.
In my writings I have
not criticised Rene Descartes. Indeed, in my book 'Modern Aether Science' 
published in 1972, I have developed my theory on the basis of Descartes' work,
but as further advanced by that early-20th-century French astronomer, Alexandre
Veronnet . He quantized the aether particle motion in units of the Bohr
magneton and partly anticipated what I was later to discover from my research as
an analogy between aether and the ferromagnetic state. I go much further, even
including the domain aspect of ferromagnetism. I came to picture each individual
star nucleating within its own space domain as gravity appeared, akin to
ferromagnetism appearing when a crystal inside iron cools through the Curie
There is always the need to be critical as, so often,
revision of one's ideas and formulations is necessary, but, progressively, so
long as we keep the main uncertainties in science as our target, we will solve
all problems. The need for the phase-lock on a universal scale has been my main
target, because it brings together magnetism, gravitation and the quantum
connection as encapsulated in the fine-structure constant and from that flows
the photon and the problem of duality with electromagnetic wave theory.
leave it to my papers, as listed in the following bibliography, to tell their
own story and to prove that many of the secrets of the aether are now
ReferencesPapers by H. Aspden
 'The Law of
Electrodynamics', Journal of the Franklin Institute, 287, 179-183
 [Jointly with D. M. Eagles] 'Aether Theory and the Fine Structure
Constant', Physics Letters, 41A, 423-424 (1972).
 [Jointly with D.
M. Eagles] 'Calculation of the Proton Mass in a Lattice Model for the Aether',
Il Nuovo Cimento, 30A, 235-238 (1975).
 'The Fresnel Formula
applied to Empty Space', International Journal of Theoretical Physics,
15, 263-264 (1976).
 'Inertia of a Non-radiating Particle',
International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 15 631-633 (1976).
'A New Approach to the Problem of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the
Electron', International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 16, 401-404
 'Electrodynamic Anomalies in Arc Discharge Phenomena', IEEE
Transactions on Plasma Science, PS-5, 159-163 (1977).
Correlation Formula Applied to Psi Particles', Speculations in Science and
Technology, 1, 59-63 (1978).
 'Crystal Symmetry and
Ferromagnetism', Speculations in Science and Technology, 1, 281-288
 'G Fluctuations and Planetary Orbits', Catastrophist Geology,
3-2, 1-2 (December 1978).
 'Ion Accelerators and Energy Transfer
Processes', U.K. Patent Specification No. 2,002,953A (Published 28 February
 'The Spatial Energy Distribution for Coulomb Interaction',
Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 25, 456-458 (1979).
 'Energy Correlation
of Radiative Decays of psi(3684)', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 26, 257-260
 [Jointly with D. M. Eagles] 'The Spatial Distribution of the
Interaction Contribution to the Magnetic-Field Energy Associated with Two Moving
Charges', Acta Physica Polonica, A57, 473-482 (1980).
Inverse-Square Law of Force and its Spatial Energy Distribution', J. Phys. A:
Math. Gen. 13, 3649-3655 (1980).
 'Speculations in General Plus
Some of My Own', Specculations in Science and Technology, 3, 114-116
 'UFOs and the Cosmic Connection', Energy Unlimited, 8,
 'A Theory of Neutron Lifetime', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento,
31, 383-384 (1981).
 'Atmospheric Electric Field Induction',
Speculations in Science and Technology, 4, 314-316 (1981).
Anomalous Magnetic Moment of the Electron', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 32,
 'Electron Form and Anomalous Energy Radiation', Lettere
al Nuovo Cimento, 33, 213-216 (1982).
 'A Theory of Pion
Lifetime', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 33, 237-239 (1982).
Correlation of the anomalous g-Factors of the Electron and Muon', Lettere al
Nuovo Cimento, 33, 481-484 (1982)
 'Mirror Reflection Effects in
Light Speed Anisotropy Tests', Speculations in Science and Technology, 5,
 'Charge Induction by Thermal Radiation', Journal of
Electrostatics, 13, 71-80 (1982).
 'The Aether - an Assessment',
Wireless World, 88, 37-39 (October 1982).
 'Relativity and
Rotation', Speculations in Science and Technology, 6, 199-202
 'The Lamb Shift for a Cavity-Resonant Electron', Lettere al
Nuovo Cimento, 36, 364-368 (1983).
 'The Thunderball - an
Electrostatic Phenomenon', Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 66:
Electrostatics 1983, pp. 179-184.
 'The Determination of Absolute
Gravitational Potential', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 37, 169-172
 'The Nature of the Muon', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 37,
 'Theoretical Resonances for Particle-Antiparticle
Collisions based on the Thomson Electron Model', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento,
37, 307-311 (1983).
 'Meson Lifetime Dilation as a Test for
Special Relativity', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 38, 206-210
 'Planar Boundaries of the Space-Time Lattice', Lettere al Nuovo
Cimento, 38, 243-246 1983).
 'The Mass of the Muon', Lettere al
Nuovo Cimento, 38, 342-345 (1983).
 'The Assessment of a Theory
for the Proton-Electron Mass Ratio', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 38,
 'The Scope for First-Order Tests of the Light Speed
Anisotropy', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 38, 568-572 (1983).
Finite Lifetime of the Electron', Speculations in Science and Technology,
7, 3-6 (1984).
 'Electromagnetic Reaction Paradox', Lettere al
Nuovo Cimento, 39, 247-251 (1984).
 'The Muon g-Factor by Cavity
Resonance Theory', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 39, 271-275 (1984).
'Boson Creation in a Sub-Quantum Lattice', Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 40,
 'The Steady-State Free-Electron Population of Free Space',
Lettere al Nuovo Cimento, 41, 252-256 (1984).
 'Don't Forget
Thomson', Physics Today, 15 (November 1984).
 'The Nature of the Pion',
Speculations in Science and Technology, 8, 235-239 (1985).
Maxwell-Fechner Hypothesis as an Alternative to Einstein's Theory, 8,
 'Unification of Gravitational and Electrodynamic
Potential based on Classical Action-at-a-Distance Theory', Lettere al Nuovo
Cimento, 44, 689-693 (1985)
 'The Paradox of Constant Planetary
Mass as Evidence of a Leptonic Lattice-Structured Vacuum State', Lettere al
Nuovo Cimento, 44, 705-709 (1985).
 'The Exploding Wire
Phenomenon', Physics Letters, 107A, 238-240 (1985).
 'A New
Perspective on the Law of Electrodynamics', Physics Letters, 111A, 22-24
 'Theoretical Evaluation of the Fine Structure Constant', Physics
Letters, 110A, 113-115 (1985).
 'The Proton Enigma', American
Journal of Physics, 53, 938 (1985).
 'More on Thomson's
Particles', Americal Journal of Physics, 53, 616 (1985).
Violation - a New Concept in Relativity?', Nature, 318, 317-318
 'Earnshaw's Theorem', Nature, 319, 8 (1986).
'Anomalous Electrodynamic Explosions in Liquids', IEEE Transactions on Plasma
Science, PS-14, 282-285 (1986).
 'How to Test Special Relativity',
Nature, 321, 734 (1986).
 'Classical Relativity', Nature,
320, 10 (1986).
 'Electron Self-Field Interaction and Internal
Resonance, Physics Letters, 119A, 109-111 (1986).
 'The Mystery of
Mercury's Perihelion', The Toth-Maatian Review, 5, 2475-2481
 'Flat Space Gravitation', Physics Education, 21, 261-262
 'Fundamental Constants derived from Two-Dimensional Harmonic
Oscillations in an Electrically Structured Vacuum', Speculations in Science and
Technology, 9 315-323 (1986).
 'The Theoretical Nature of the
Neutron and the Deuteron', Hadronic Journal, 9, 129-136 (1986).
'Meson Production based on Thomson Energy Correlation', Hadronic Journal,
9, 137-140 (1986).
 'An Empirical Approach to Meson Energy
Correlation', Hadronic Journal, 9, 153-157 (1986).
Theoretical Nature of the Photon in a Lattice Vacuum', pp. 345-359 in the
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Quantum Violations:
Bridgeport, Connecticut 23-27 June 1986, published by Plenum in NATO ASI Series
B: Physics vol. 162.
 'A Causal Theory of Neutron Diffraction', Physics
Letters 119A, 105-108 (1986).
 'On the Creation of the Sun', The
Toth-Maatian Review, 5, 2609-2612 (1986).
 'The Case for the
Sub-Electron', The Toth-Maatian Review, 5, 2827-2833 (1987).
'Ampere's Law: Comments on a Discussion by Milnes', The Toth-Maatian Review,
6, 2981-2984 (1987).
 'Derivation of the Electrodynamic Force
Law', The Toth-Maatian Review, 6, 2985-2987 (1987).
Exploding Wire Phenomenon as an Inductive Effect', Physics Letters, 120A,
 'Earthquake-Related EM Disturbances', Quarterly Journal of
the Royal Astronomical Society, 28, 535-536 (1987).  'A Note on the
Silvertooth Experiment', Speculations in Science and Technology, 10, 9-12
 'Earnshaw's Theorem', American Journal of Physics, 55,
199 (March 1987).
 'The Physics of the Missing Atoms: Technetium and
Promethium', Hadronic Journal, 10, 167-172 (1987).
Lattice Electrodynamics as an Alternative to Time Dilation', Hadronic Journal,
10, 185-192 (1987).
 'Steady State Electrodynamic Induction - A
Feature of the General Law of Electrodynamics', Progress in Space-Time Physics
1987, Editor J. P. Wesley, Benjamin Wesley, Blumberg, Germany, pp. 137-155
 'Tests of Photon Theory in Terms of Precision Measurement',
Problems in Quantum Physics; Gdansk '87, (Conference Proceedings), Editors L.
Kostro et al., World Scientific, New Jersey, pp. 353-373 (1987)
 'EM Wave
Interference', American Journal of Physics, 56, 103 (February
 'Ghost Mass and the Unseen Energy World as Revealed by the
Anomalies of the Gyroscope', The Toth-Maatian Review, 6, 3165-3171
 'Instantaneous Electrodynamic Potential with Retarded Energy
Transfer', Hadronic Journal, 11, 307-313 (1988).
 'The Theory of
the Proton Constants', Hadronic Journal, 11, 169-176 (1988).
Theory of Proton Creation', Physics Essays, 1, 72-76 (1988).
We Really Understand Magnetism?', Magnets, 1, 19-24 (1988).
Vacuum as our Future Source of Energy', Magnets, 3(8), 15-18
 'A Modern Test for the Ether?', Physics Today, 41, p. 132
 'The Proton Factor and its Unknown Effects', The
Toth-Maatian Review, 7, 3725-3734 (October 1988).
Electronics', Electronics & Wireless World, 29-31 (January 1989).
'Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation and Biological Effects',
Speculations in Science and Technology, 12, 17-20 (1989).
'Conservative Hadron Interactions Exemplified by the Creation of the Kaon',
Hadronic Journal, 12, 101-108 (1989).
 'The Theory of the
Gravitation Constant', Physics Essays, 2, 173-179 (1989).
Theory of Pion Creation', Physics Essays, 2, 360-367 (1989).
Supergraviton and its Technological Connection', Speculations in Science and
Technology, 12, 179-186 (1989).
 'Standing Wave Interferometry',
Physics Essays, 3, 39-45 (1990).
 'The Harwen Energy Radiation
Regenerator', Speculations in Science and Technology, 13 295-299
 'Maxwell's Demon and the Second Law of Thermodynamics', Nature,
347, 25 (1990).
 'Switched Reluctance Motor with Full A.C.
Commutation', U.S. Patent 4,975,608 (4th December 1990).
 'Thermal Power
Device', U.K. Patent Specification 2,239,490A (Published 3rd July 1991).
'The Theory of Antigravity', Physics Essays, 4, 13-19 (1991).
'Power Lines, Cancer and Cylotron Resonance', Electronics World and Wireless
World, pp. 774-775 (September 1991).
 'Magnets and Gravity', Magnets,
6(6), 16-22 (1992).
 'Electricity without Magnetism', Electronics
World, 540-542 (1992).
 'The Law of Perpetual Motion', Physics
Education, 28, 202-203 (1993).
 'The First Law of
Thermodynamics', Physics Education, 28, 340-342 (1993).
'Retardation in the Coulomb Potential', Physics Essays, 8, 19-28
 'Vacuum Spin as a New Energy Source', Proceedings:
International Symposium on New Energy, Denver, Colorado, pp. 1-19, April 25-28,
Books by H.
 'The Theory of Gravitation', pp. 48 (1960), Sabberton
Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, England.
 'The Theory
of Gravitation', 2nd Ed. pp. 132 (1966), Sabberton Publications, P.O. Box 35,
Southampton SO16 7RB, England.
 'Physics without Einstein', pp. 224
(1969), Sabberton Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB,
 'Modern Aether Science', pp. 165 (1972), Sabberton
Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, England.
'Gravitation', pp. 78 (1975), Sabberton Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton
SO16 7RB, England.
 'Physics Unified', pp. 206 (1980), Sabberton
Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, England.
Other publications by H.
 'Space, Energy and Creation', pp. 24 (1977) Sabberton
Publications, P.O. Box 35, Southampton SO16 7RB, England.
 Altschuler, M. D., Howe, L. L. & Hildner, E.,
'Is Ball Lightning a Nuclear Phenomenon?', Nature, 228, 545 (1970).
Samokhin, A., 'Vacuum Energy - a Breakthrough?', Press Release No.
03NTO-89071CM04, Novosti Press Agency, Moscow (1989).
 Correa, P. &
Correa, A., (1995). 'Electromechanical Transduction of Plasma Pulses', U.S.
Patent No. 5,416,391.
 Correa, P. & Correa, A., (1995). 'Energy
Conversion System', U.S. Patent No. 5,449,989.
 Verronet, A., Comptes
Rendus, 188, 1380-1381 (1929).
 Chukanov, K. B., 'Final Quantum
Revelation', General Energy International, Salt Lake City, Utah, pp. 220-221
 Lambertson, W. A., 'History and Status of the Win Process',
Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Energy, Denver, Colorado, May
12-15, 1994, pp. 283-288.